bone metastasis, metastases, adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, pathophysiology, histopathology, malignancy, cancer secondaire des os, métastase, métastase osseuse, histopathologie, physiopathologie, RANKL, RNAK, IL-6, cercle vicieux, ostéolyse, osteolysis, osteosclerosis, ostéosclérose, ostéocondensation, scintigraphie osseuse, microCT
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Bone metastasis: Histological changes and pathophysiological mechanisms in osteolytic or osteosclerotic localizations. A review
Les métastases osseuses : aspects histologiques et mécanismes
physiopathologiques dans les formes ostéolytiques ou ostéocondensantes. Une revue
Morphologie (2011) 95, 65—75.
Summary The development of a bone metastasis involves interactions between the tumor cells, the bone marrow microenvironment and the bone cells themselves. A better understanding of the pathophysiological changes occurring in bone metastasis can be obtained from histopathological examination of invaded specimens. This review focuses on the main molecular mechanisms implied in the localization and growth of malignant cells in the bone marrow. The corresponding histologic developmental stages are illustrated both in osteolytic (or mixed metastasis) or in the osteosclerotic forms by histological analysis, immunohistochemistry and microcomputed tomographic analysis of bone samples. In both cases, the malignant cells find a ‘‘fertile soil’’ in the bone marrow microenvironment. They use the growth factors released by bone cells for the coupling between osteoclasts/osteoblasts to promote their own development. In turn, they elaborate a variety of cytokines that can promote osteoclastogenesis (PTHrP, IL-1, IL-6. . .) or on the contrary, other growth factors that can boost the osteoblastic activity (ET1, IGFs). A ‘‘vicious circle’’ occurs between the malignant cells and the bone cells leading to the radiological expression of the metastasis.